b shows proximal tubular necrosis with marked loss of brush border in the IR group.IR AFE and IR MFE groups show a minimal loss of brush border of proximal tubular epithelial cells. On the other hand, IR ASE and IR MSE groups show a moderate loss of brush border of proximal tubular epithelial cells. Moreover, its expression was signicantly lower in the AFE group compared to other treated groups. A negative cytoplasmic, and nuclear expression of the caspase protein in the kidney specimens obtained from the sham group, while those of the IR group showed marked cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of caspase in glomeruli and proximal and distal tubules. In the treated groups, all were exhibited moderate and minimal cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of caspase protein in proximal tubular cells. The expression of TGF protein was higher in the IR group compared to the sham group with an improved expression in the treated groups in comparison to the IR group. AFE group has lower expression of the TGF protein than the other treated groups. Kidney specimens obtained from the sham group showed a negative TGF expression, while the IR group was of a marked membranous expression of TGF protein in glomeruli and proximal and distal tubules. This study showed that renal I R injury caused a signicant rise in serum creatinine and BUN in the IR group suggesting the impairment of kidney glomerular and tubular functions.Besides, it led to a deterioration of kidney morphology in the form of necrosis of proximal tubular epithelial cells, loss of brush border, cystic dilatation of renal tubules and marked leucocytic inltration in the kidney tissues consistent with the results of preliminary studies. Moreover, treatment with aqueous and methanolic fruit and seed extracts caused attenuations in the alterations of kidney function tests and renal morphology associated with IR, with fruit extracts exerting more pronounced eects than seed extracts, and aqueous extracts of both kinds being generally more effective than the respective methanolic extracts.The dierences in the quality and the quantity of the substances in each extract could explain the dierences in the degree of renoprotective eects of the extracts.In a previous study, fruit extracts yielded antioxidants substances with a high concentration of pcoumaric acid, caeic acid, and ferulic acid, whereas seed extracts yielded antioxidant substances with a high concentration of caeic and gallic acid with the aqueous extracts having higher concentrations of the antioxidant substances than the methanolic extracts. In addition to the phenolic compounds just mentioned, the antioxidant substances identied in the latter study also included avonoids like quercetin, luteolin and rutin. In the current study, we investigated several mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of renal IR injury such as oxidative stress.Several reports have investigated the role of oxidative stress and ROS in the pathogenesis of renal IR injury. The excessive production of ROS in kidney tissues during the oxidative stress leads to apoptotic and necrotic cell death, therefore, targeting this process will aid in the management of the renal IR injury.In this study, all date palm extracts caused a reduction in the MDA with an increase in the GSH and CAT activity, suggesting the antioxidant eect of date palm extracts in renal IR injury, especially for the aqueous fruit extract.

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