Vitamin K Metabolism

The animals were weighed and randomly assigned to four groups of ve animals in each group.For the induction of cataract, naphthalene solution was prepared in warm corn oil by heating at C for min.Illumination was provided by a focused light source.The focal distance of the microscope lens was adjusted to coincide with the focal length of the lens to ensure uniform illumination of the entire lens and to provide the best overall depth of the eld.The relative protection by curcumin against opacication was calculated by U.An equatorial incision was made and the anterior capsule was removed.The anterior capsule containing the epithelial layer was xed in formalin and embedded in parafn.In situ detection of apoptosis in each xed sample was carried out with two different kits using protocols provided by the manufacturers and is described below in brief. Images represented pseudo color enhanced photographs of intensity of transmitted light with yellow, red and black represent decreasing intensity in this order.legends: A, control; B, naphthalene; C, curcumin; and D, curcumin plus naphthalene.Column II: green uorescence was viewed using standard uorescein excitation and emission lters in lens epithelial cells due to incorporation of uoresceindUTP.Column III shows red uorescence of the same eld as in column II was viewed using rhodamine excitation and emission lters.Up to days into the experiment, the lenses of all groups of animals were clear with no sign of cataractogenesis.However, at the termination of experiment on day, the rats in group B. The lenses of rats in control groups A and C as well as those in group D showed no indication of lens opacity.Color enhanced grayscale images of representative lenses from each group are presented. The measurements of AITL of lenses from the control animals showed similar AITL values, which were remarkably consistent between animals, suggesting that AITL measurements during the present studies were a valid assessment of the transparency index.The AITL values of lenses from the rats given naphthalene and kept on curcumin supplemented AIN diet was signicantly higher than those of lenses from rats fed only naphthalene indicating that dietary curcumin provided a signicant protection against naphthaleneinitiated opacication of lens.Formalin xed parafn embedded sections from minimum of ve different lens capsules containing lens epithelial cells from each group were histochemically examined for apoptosis using two different in situ apoptosis detection kits.The group of animal treated with curcumin along with U.and mg:kg body weight. The daily dose of curcumin to the rats falls within this range.Thus, it is tempting to speculate that curcumin may provide protection against senile cataract in humans, and the populations consuming turmeric may have an advantage against advancement of cataract with age.This postulate, however, must be tested through wellcontrolled epidemiological studies.It has been shown that oxidative stress caused by metabolites of naphthalene contributes to lens opacity.Based on the antioxidant properties of curcumin, and the enzymes of lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways, several plausible mechanisms can be suggested for the protective effect of curcumin against naphthaleneinitiated cataract.Antioxidants can be effective inhibitors of oxidative damage such as lipid peroxidation and DNA lesions caused by naphthalene and antioxidants such as caffeic acid and vitamin E, retard the cataractogenic effect of naphthalene in mice have demonstrated that free radicals are formed in lens cultures in the presence of, napthaquinone.

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