Ketone Metabolism

The current work reported a signicant increase in the serum level of TNF and in the expression of TNF gene at the level of mRNA in kidney tissues obtained from IR group of this study which is consistent with the previous ndings. Moreover, we found that treatment with palm date fruit and seed extracts leads to an attenuation in the serum level of TNF and in the expression of TNF, suggesting that the antiinammatory eects of these extracts that might be associated with the renoprotective action of the extracts against renal IR injury.TGF is a cytokine which plays an important role in renal IR injury as a participant in the inammatory cascade within minutes after the ischemic damage. Its expression at the levels of mRNA and protein was increased in the damaged and regenerating proximal tubules in less than hup to days after ischemia. The upregulated TGF triggers the development of renal glomerulosclerosis and interstitial brosis. Here, a signicant increase in the expression of TGF at the level of protein by immunohistochemistry assay in kidney tissues of ischemic rats was shown compared to those of the shamoperated rats.In addition, both palm date extracts caused reduction in the expression of TGF suggesting antiinammatory eects of the extracts during renal IR injury.Apoptosis, also known as programmed cell death, is one of the renal cell death mechanisms during renal IR injury, that were investigated in this study.Execution of the process of apoptosis is performed by caspases, a group of cysteine proteases. These caspases act by irreversibly cleaving their substrates after aspartic acid residues.Several caspases have been involved in the apoptotic cell death during renal IR such as caspase and caspase. This report found an increase in the caspase expression at the protein level in the IR group which is in line with several related studies. Moreover, fruit and seed extracts lead to a signicant reduction in the caspase expression at dierent time intervals suggesting their antiapoptotic eects.Although, we examined several mechanisms in the current study, still some points should be cleared such as the role of inammatory cells including neutrophils, macrophages and dentridtic cells in renal IR injury.This is considered as one of the limitations of the current study and futures studies are needed to explore more about the renoprotective action of palm date extracts in M.Khalil: shared in histopathological exmaniation and analysis.Altered miRNA proles have been identied in serum, immune cells, and live tissues from AILD patients.Additionally, dierent miRNA mimics or antagonists, such as atagomiR and miR mimics, have been widely applied in experimental AILD murine models with great ecacy.Similar to other autoimmune diseases, HLA loci are implicated in development of AIH.Besides, HLADRB, HLADRB, HLADRB, HLADRB alleles have been reported to increase AIH susceptibility. NonHLA genes also have a predisposition to AIH, including SHB, CARD, TNFA, STAT, and CTLA. According to genomewide association studies, HLADPBI, HLADRB, HLADRB, and HLADRB are associated with PBC risk. In addition, some nonHLA genes related to signaling pathways are considered as risk alleles of PBC, such as antigen presentation and IL production, T cell activation and production of IFN.

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