Metabolisme Karbohidrat Pdf

Many studies have reported about the potential role of herbal medicines in suspending inammation.This communication summarizes the published literature regarding the antiinammatory activities of plant extracts, essential oils, and plantderived compounds along with the underlying molecular mechanisms of their role in inammationmediated metabolic diseases.The huge range of research as well as review papers that have reported about the antiinammatory effects of essential oils, plant extracts, S.Moreover, this chapter also presents some latest data on some traditionally used medicinal plants that were not investigated yet in this respect.Inammation is a defensive mechanism in which both the innate and the acquired immune responses are involved having pain, swelling, redness, heat, and loss of function in the affected area, which is because of dilated blood vessels, and increased spaces between the cells, and thereby resulting in the movement of proteins, leukocytes, and uids into the regions of inammation. The process of inammation is activated once the body is subjected to lasting shock because of either exogenous or endogenous stimuli such as infectious pathogens, extreme temperature, physical force, irradiation, and irritants having small molecular weight occurs, which results in the marked increase of the osmotic pressure of the affected tissues along with the aggregation of uid in excess amount along with raised temperature. The synthesis and the secretion of various inammatory mediators occur during inammatory reactions of various kinds. Usually, the inammatory reactions get triggered when immune cells such as neutrophils, dendritic cells and macrophages are activated due to the phagocytosis of pathogens by receptors such as tolllike receptors, which are associated with the recognition of molecular patterns of pathogenderived materials like lipopolysaccharide. The inammatory substances have been categorized as the pro and antiinammatory mediators, except for some mediators such as IL. When the inammatory cells get activated, they result in elevated intracellular signaling by cascades that involve tyrosine kinases and inhibitor of kinase, thereby, resulting in activation of the nuclear transcription factor and stimulated expression of several inammatory genes like inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase. This in turn results in the release of several arbitrators of inammation such as nitric oxide, prostaglandin E and proinammatory cytokines, and this further activates the chemotactic reactions of other inammatory cells, resulting in the synthesis of hydrolytic enzymes and cytotoxic molecules. The reaction of organisms towards this would be the migration of immune cells via the endothelial cells. Inammation response results in the elimination of possible pathogens, thereby, returning the damaged tissue back to the condition of homeostasis. Homeostasis is the tendency towards a relatively stable equilibrium between the interdependent elements and is maintained by physiological processes.The vital role being played by both the acute and the chronic inammatory responses as a natural defense mechanism of the bodys innate immune system for the maintenance of immune homeostasis. However, if the inammation is not controlled adequately, it can spread in the entire body and may result in several tissue damages including gastritis and other associated organs.The enzymes having characteristic feature of getting induced are the main targets of the antiinammatory drugs because these enzymes cause the production of a large number of proinammatory mediators like the enzymes from the arachidonic acid pathways and hyaluronidase.

Leave a Reply