Ketone Bodies Metabolism

Carrageenan model of inammation produces inamed tissue followed by hyperalgesia because of production of different mediators, that is, histamine, prostaglandins, cyclooxygenase, and hydroxytryptamine with enhanced activity. This model drastically increased NO production, and free radicals were also reported. The antiinammatory and antihyperalgesic effects of CBD have been studied in carrageenan model which is due to decreased level of plasma PGE, COX activity, and production of free radicals and nitric oxide.Current treatment strategy is only supportive and not leads to effective relief from inammation.Inammatory cells, myeloperoxidase activity, and albumin concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage uid are the parameters that were observed and analyzed by colorimetric assays, as well as production of cytokinechemokine in lungs was analyzed by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay.CBD decreased leukocyte migration, production of proinammatory cytokines in lungs.Atherosclerosis is an inammatory disease initiated and progressed by the monocytesmacrophages with activated CB and CB receptors, which shows early development of atherosclerosis and inammatory response.The CBD has antagonistic effect on these receptors.Among the currently screened newer molecule, CBD is found to have signicant antiinammatory effect.Its immunomodulatory effect is due to its action on macrophages.The antiinammatory and neuroprotective action of CBD is due to increased signaling mechanism of adenosine followed by accumulation of adenosine and reduction in uptake of adenosine.This adenosinebased mechanism is thought to be the main process which addresses the inammation and shows the antiinammatory effect.But use of CBD is lacking due to its poor water solubility, and it shows unpredictable absorption throughout the GIT.Through oral route it shows bioavailability about N.Different formulation strategies must be developed to improve the water solubility and bioavailability, which potentiate its use as a strong antiinammatory molecule.From this we may conclude that CBD possesses potential immunomodulatory activity and can be used to treat different inammatory conditions alone or in combination with other agents for its synergistic effect.Their incidence has increased due to several factors such as lifestyle changes, changes in dietary patterns, and increased psychological stress.Due to increase in awareness regarding these disorders by healthcare professionals and general public, increasing number of cases are diagnosed with every passing year.This presents a challenge, especially in underdeveloped and developing countries, where the public healthcare systems are not well established and penetration of health insurance cover is relatively much lower.Alternative medicine has traditionally been used in several cultures around the world to treat neurological problems.Essential oils and other plant volatiles have a long history of traditional use for ameliorating symptoms of neurological and psychological disorders.Some of these have been shown to modulate key enzymes that are targets for depression therapy.In the present chapter we have presented an overview of above, and toward the end we have attempted to identify lacunas in this area which may help to formulate future research strategies.They have contributed signicantly to global burden of noncommunicable diseases worldwide. The lack of detailed knowledge behind the underlying causes of many neurological conditions poses major hurdle in the development of treatment strategies for these conditions.Also, the modern medicine and therapies developed for mental health and neurodegenerative diseases provide only symptomatic relief and possess multiple side effects.

Leave a Reply